Saturday, May 23, 2020
The behavior of sexual harassment occurring in general and specifically in a school environment is not a new problem. In the 2002 survey from the American Association of University, Women (AAUW), eighty-five percent of students surveyed they were harassed (Bates 8). While in the 2010-2011 school year of 7-12 graders survey from the AAUW, forty-eight percent of students surveyed they experienced some form of sexual harassment (AAUW 11). Shockingly, this shows sexual harassment is still happening at a high rate, and the effects of it are unnecessary because it can be prevented. Since sexual harassment is still arising, students are continuing to be affected. Some examples are, sexual harassment has affected students from benefiting fromÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There are variations of conduct which includes verbal, nonverbal, or physical (OCR 3). Out of this conduct, the behavior can be criminal in nature such as rape (OCR 4). When sexual harassment is against the law, the authori ty must be contacted and reported. There are two types of sexual harassment that is protected from Title IX which are: Ã¢â¬Å"this for thatÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"hostile environmentÃ¢â¬ (AAWU 7). The type of sexual harassment, Ã¢â¬Å"this for thatÃ¢â¬ , is when someone abuses their power in exchange for something. For example of this type of harassment Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ a teacher or administrator, abuses her or his power to coerce a student into sexual activity in exchange for a good gradeÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (AAUW 7). This harassment is not common, but is illicit no matter what the circumstance is. Ã¢â¬Å"Hostile environmentÃ¢â¬ , the other type, makes up the majority of sexual harassment which limits a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to benefit from the schooling provided. This conduct isÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ sufficiently, severe, persistent, or pervasiveÃ¢â¬ (AAUW 7), and usually occurs from students to other students. This category of sexual harassment usually begins with adolescence when they en ter puberty (AAUW 7), so sexual harassment especially manifests in middle school and high school. Peer to peer harassment makes up a vast amount of sexual harassment at middle and high schools (AAUW
Monday, May 11, 2020
Coming of age is the transition of a person from childhood to adulthood. The Catcher in the Rye is portrayed through the mind of Holden Caulfield. This book portrays Holden as a maniac because he is recalling his three day story to a psychoanalyst from a mental hospital. Holden is fighting that fine line between being an adult and a child. However, he does not want to grow up and become an adult because of the growing responsibilities that come with being an adult, the loss of innocence associated with growing up, and the phoniness of that comes with growing into an adult. Holden is afraid of growing up because of the growing responsibilities that come with being an adult. This is clearly shown through him failing classes atÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦My parents would be the ones. So that was out,Ã¢â¬ (Salinger 59). Although his parents have kept shoving Holden away he should have been responsible and called his parents and face his consequences. However, Holden is too afraid of the growing responsibilities that come with growing up. Therefore, Holden does not want to grow up because of the growing responsibilities that come with becoming an adult. In addition, Holden does not want to grow up because of the loss of innocence that is associated with growing up. Throughout the story Holden always shows that he loves children and their innocence. For example, in the beginning when Holden is writing the composition for Stradlater, he describes AllieÃ¢â¬â¢s purity. Ã¢â¬Å"He was two years younger than I was, but he was about fifty times as intelligent. He was terrifically intelligent Ã¢â¬ ¦ But it wasnt just that he was the most intelligent member in the family. He was also the nicest, in lots of ways. He never got mad at anybody,Ã¢â¬ (Salinger 38). Holden describes how pure Allie is by saying how he was fifty times as intelligent he was even though Allie was two years younger than he was. Also, Holden talked about how Allie never got mad at anybody. Even though this could be true, I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t seen younger kids not get mad. This shows how he is describing AllieÃ¢â¬â¢s purity. Another way Holden shows that he doe s not want to grow up isShow MoreRelatedAmerican Library Association Vs. Salinger s The Catcher s The Rye 1230 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages J.D. SalingerÃ¢â¬â¢s, The Catcher in the Rye, holds the honor of appearing on Ã¢â¬Å"TimeÃ¢â¬ magazineÃ¢â¬â¢s 2010 list of the 100 best English-language novels written since 1923 (Lacayo). In contrast, the American Library Association (ALA) notes that the novel also holds the dubious honor of being the tenth most challenged book in the United States from 1990 to 1999. In 2001, 2005, and 2009 the book again made the ALA top ten most frequently challenged book list (Banned and Challenged Books). In the lightRead MoreThe Secrets of a Teenage Life900 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescharacter Holden Caulfield by both physical actions and expressed emotions in the book The Catcher in the Rye. The overall main message of the book is to express the troubles that are involved with growing up in the adolescence years, to Holden Caulfied, the main charac ter of the book, growing up involves dealing with the phoniness of others and just not caring about much that is expected of life. Many negative effects come out of the adolescence years in the eyes of J.D Salingers, Holden Caulfield
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
string(159) " Authorities are also experimenting with facial recognition software, though existing versions are of limited use in scanning crowds for suspected terrorists\." Terrorism is one of the disasters feared all over the world. America particularly is most prone to a terrorist attack than any other nation. The government has tried to come up with several measures to ensure they are ready and prepared to counter any terrorist attack that may occur, especially after the unexpected 2001 September 11th attack. We will write a custom essay sample on Is America prepared for another terrorist attack? or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, eight years later, America is still not fully prepared incase of another attack. This term paper addresses the issue of the preparedness of America in dealing with or preventing terrorist attacks. Is America prepared for another terrorist attack? Introduction The threat of terrorist events involving weapons of mass destruction is real. The September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon changed the United States forever, ushering in a host of new and unprecedented realities for the American people, for the intelligence and national security communities, for medical personnel, for private security entities, and perhaps especially for the police, fire, and emergency medical personnel. In particular, police, fire and emergency medical service personnel, the agencies and individuals most likely to be the first responders to possible terrorist attacks, faced compelling demands to adopt new strategies and tactics, to undertake new training, and to view their roles and their work in an entirely different way. This term paper aims at finding out whether the American government has prepared enough to counter another terrorist attack without experiencing the problems encountered in 2001. The police, fire and emergency medical personnel As first responders, police, fire, and emergency medical service personnel are our first line of defense in case of a terrorist attack, but the enormity and complexity of the challenges that they face makes it abundantly clear that they alone cannot bear the responsibility for ensuring our safety. Although first responders play an absolute critical role in homeland security and domestic preparedness, and although a great deal of attention and resources have already been focused on them to counter the terrorist threat, much more needs to be done. Perhaps most important, realistic potential that American people, towns, and cities may again come under attack from terrorist demands that significant system changes occur throughout the range of public agencies and private entities charged with the responsibility of ensuring public safety. For the American government to be fully prepared, it must develop and implement a broader, more coordinated, more cohesive, and more focused approach to terrorism and to weapons of mass destruction and that approach must involve new relationships between and among all of these public agencies and private entities. (Roberts, 2005) The police and the emergency workers who might be called on to respond initially to a nuclear, biological, or chemical event are not adequately trained to deal effectively with those events. This is not to say that most police and emergency workers lack any training in this area. It means that they lack the highly specific training and special expertise required to recognize and deal with many of the complex and unique threats posed by such events. At present, many also lack the special tools, gear, and protective equipment these events may require. Patrol officers, firefighters, and emergency medical service personnel who initially respond to an event involving weapons of mass destruction should not be expected to undertake the specific duties and responsibilities that are better performed by well-equipped and more highly trained specialists. (Lustick, 2006) Since they lack the necessary equipments to deal with the crisis, their primary role should be to recognize the threat, to minimize additional exposure to chemical or biological agents, to ensure safety of victims, to safeguard the scene, and to report their findings to those more competent to deal with these issues. Another primary responsibility is to minimize their own contact with the chemical of biological agent and to provide as much information as possible to ensure the safety and the effectiveness of other responding units. First responders who rush in to a weapons of mass destruction event not only risk death or serious injuries from secondary devices that may have been placed at or near the scene precisely to disable or kill rescuers, but they may also become a significant liability to other victims as well as to other responders if they become contaminated or injured themselves. Such first responders who rush in and become victims may exacerbate the overall problem, consuming precious time and resources. (Mandaville, 2009) Developing capacity to prevent terrorist attacks Surveillance, physical barriers, and advanced technology have played a prominent role in the security improvement efforts explored by most communities since the September 11th terrorist attack. For example, security cameras are keeping watch over banks, embassies, schools, and a variety of other buildings as well as traffic intersections, shopping centers, parks and many other public gathering spaces. The striking image of London subway bombers captured by the cities extensive video surveillance system and a raising sense that similar attacks could happen in the United States are renewing interest in expanding police camera of public places. The London bombings showcased the capabilities of digital video surveillance system when ,after July 7 and July 21, 2005, attacks, authorities quickly produced relatively high resolution images of the suspected bombers that benefited fast moving investigators. However, critics said that the London attacks also highlighted the limitations of camera surveillance: they did not prevent terrorist bombings in the heart of the city. (Forest, 2006) Still, even with suicide bombers, camera surveillance can help with the hunt for the terrorist cells that provide them with crucial logistical support. Emerging technologies offer even greater promise. In 2006, Chicago installed gunshot detection equipment on cameras to automatically alert authorities and point the camera in the direction of the sound. Also, New Jersey Transit has a pilot project in one station that uses computer analysis of video to alert authorities of suspicious behavior, such as someone leaving a package behind. Authorities are also experimenting with facial recognition software, though existing versions are of limited use in scanning crowds for suspected terrorists. You read "Is America prepared for another terrorist attack?" in category "Papers" In San Francisco, the mayors have been noted advocates for expanding the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillance camera program. (Alexandrov, 1996) Another example of preparedness for a terrorist attack is by the Long Beach Airport in southern Los Angeles County, which has developed a plan to implement a sophisticated wireless video surveillance platform. The airport, an alternative to Los Angeles International Airport hosts major Airlines such as Alaska Airlines, America West Airlines and Jet Blue Airways. The new wireless surveillance systemÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to enable three separate Long Beach Airport security operation centers to simultaneously monitor distant sites, including secured airport areas, public parking lots, and road way tunnels. This system provides a single wireless solution for viewing, storing and managing real-time video from more than 100 cameras, becoming one of the very first wireless surveillance systems to be installed at any airport in the United States. With this integrity, security platform personnel at three locations in Long Beach (the Command and Control Centre, the Security Operations Centre, and the Security Safety Office) will be able to monitor information while viewing live video feeds at the same time from the same computer. (Fawdah etal, 2003) Video surveillance has also become a prominent feature of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s passenger railways. For example, the Washington D. C. , Metro system has partnered with the Department of Homeland Security, Department of Transportation, and the Department of Justice to develop the Program for Response Options and Technology Enhancements for Chemical or Biological Terrorism (PROTECT). PROTECT combines a closed-circuit television (CCTV) system, an operations control centre, and advanced sectors to alert authorities if a terrorist releases a chemical or a biological agent on a subway platform or in a train. Preparing Americans Psychologists are beginning to have a stronger appreciation of the fact that humans are extremely resilient, even in times of crisis. Accordingly, the American government should also try to nurture the quality of resilience in its citizens. More recent work has considered how this concept has relevance, not just for adults, but also for communities, particularly in the wake of a disaster; it is argued that community resilience can be nurtured through readiness, response and recovery phases of a disaster. So, for instance, by minimizing the subject fear of terrorism, the American government can empower its citizens to exert a greater level of confidence in their respective communitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ abilities to anticipate and respond to security threats. Ultimately, in doing so, one of the most potent weapons that terrorists possess -fear- may be squashed. (Rowitz 2005) Its also critical not to install fear in individuals when preparing for disaster, since such individuals generally ignore such messages; additionally, fear arousing information is particularly helpful when followed by practical suggestions as how to address given concerns. Some have argued that the Department of Homeland Security, along with its affiliated Web site(www. ready. gov) has failed to appropriately address individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ fears and the ways to nurture resilience by making extreme and often erroneous suggestions (e. g. , encouraging individuals to have a supply of antibiotics on hand) while not addressing events that have a greater likelihood of promoting panic (e. g. , how to get trampled in a crowd should a Ã¢â¬Å"dirty bombÃ¢â¬ attack occur). (Ursano, etal 2003) Analysis There is no further need to speculate as to how the American government would likely respond to a terrorist attack, such as the 2001 terrorist attack. It is evident that significant work remains in order to secure the American Homeland incase of an attack or when disaster strikes. The occurrence of Hurricane Katrina was a good indicator of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s preparedness. By the end of four days or so after Katrina struck, National Guardsmen and supplies started to pour into the city. Most, but not all, residents had been evacuated out of New Orleans and left with very uncertain futures. The rescuers were met unprepared, which led to delays in rescuing the victims. Katrina dramatically revealed the incredible degree to which we are still unable to respond and proactively anticipate disasters. However, that there have been, are, and will likely always be large gaps in protecting the American homeland should not be surprising. In a country as geographically vast as the United states, American needs to appreciate that Ã¢â¬âregardless of whether politicians may promise-every square inch of this country can not be guarded or protected at all times. Whether in a mall, on a train, at a school or in the work place, most of us are probably well aware that if someone is intent on carrying out a physical harm to others, there is a good probability that such an event will occur. Sadly, there are many instances of deadly violence that have occurred at all of the above locations and others, such as the shooting, rampage that took place in 1993 on the Long Island Railroad or the 1999 Columbine High School Massacre. There is also a difference between acts executed by one by one or two troubled individuals versus those committed by an organized group of individuals such as al Qaeda members. While we can fully eradicate the risk of single terrorists, we can certainly do more to minimize the risk posed by terrorists groups, although this risk too can never be completely eliminated. Conclusion The new realities of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction demand a new set of policies, practices and relationships among and between a host of entities and institutions charged with the responsibility to ensure public safety. The government still has a lot of work to do in readiness of effective response should another terrorist attack occur. As learnt from the experiences and lessons of the September 11th attacks on the world Trade Centre and the Pentagon, police, fire, and emergency medical services face unprecedented challenges in the future, and similar challenges confront virtually every institution in the United States. As seen in this paper, there are a lot of issues, problems and threats posed by the specter of terrorism and terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ use of weapons of mass destruction. This calls for the need for highly coordinated response and recovery planning that integrates resources, skills, personnel, and capabilities of a range of public sector organizations. No plan can pretend to be perfect, there are simply too many unforeseen issues and exigencies that arise in specific events, and the planning must therefore be crafted for flexibility and adaptability. This involves nothing less than a new midst that accepts, accounts for, and takes up the challenges posed by the realities of our world. Recent studies reveal the extent and the dimension of the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction, their availability to terrorists and extremist groups, and the massive casualties that can inflict on public safety personnel and members of the public. These threats are not likely to subside, and in fact may increase. (Ackerman 2007). There is a pressing need for more and better training for the first responders to such events so that they can recognize events involving weapons of mass destructions and so that they can operate safely to minimize deaths, injuries, and damage. Similarly, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s need for more and better equipment to help rescuers achieve their goals. This calls for a new mindset among emergency workers, and a mindset for of safety and preparedness that infiltrates all their duties and activities. In addition to anticipating and preventing terrorism, Americans need to have a better understanding of the root causes of terrorism. We should not excuse or condone the actions of terrorists. It is also naive logic to presume that terrorists are simply evil individuals and that killing such people will end the security concerns. Individuals such as al Qaeda leaders Osama bin Laden, Ayman Al-Zawahiri, and Abu Musab al-Zarqawi absolutely need to be captured or killed. References 1) Forest James J. F. (2006). Homeland Security: Public spaces and social institutions. Greenwood Publishing Group 2) Roberts Albert R. 3rd edition. (2005). Crisis intervention handbook: assessment, treatment, and research. Oxford University Press US; pg 189-198 3) Rowitz Louis (2005). Public health for the 21st century: the prepared leader. Jones Bartlett Publishers; pg 80-90 4) Lustick Ian (2006). Trapped in the war on terror. University of Pennsylvania Press; pg 8 5) Ackerman Bruce A. (2007). Before the Next Attack: Preserving Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism. Yale University Press; pg 114-116 6) Mandaville Michael(2009). Citizen-Soldier Handbook: 101 Ways Every American Can Fight Terrorism. Dog Ear Publishing, 2009; pg 89-95 7) Fawdah Yusri, Fielding Nick. (2003) Masterminds of terror: the truth behind the most devastating terrorist attack the world has ever seen. Arcade Publishing; pg 201 8) Alexandrov Stanimir A. (1996). Self-defense against the use of force in international law; Martinus Nijhoff Publishers; pg 181-183 9) Ursano Robert J. , Fullerton Carol S. , Norwood Ann E. (2003). Terrorism and disaster: individual and community mental health interventions. Cambridge University Press; pg 287 How to cite Is America prepared for another terrorist attack?, Papers
Friday, May 1, 2020
Animal Farm The Significance of Squealer Essay The novel Animal Farm, by George Orwell, is an allegory portraying the dangers of a totalitarian government. It seeks to show how a society where all live completely equal has not been, and cannot be achieved. Orwell, through the use of the character Squealer, shows how propaganda can affect members of a communist society in a negative way. By drawing parallels to events in communist Russia, Orwells Animal Farm illustrates how propaganda was used to control the Soviet people by deceiving them, threatening them and keeping them ignorant in an attempt to maintain order. The story uses simple language to explain and expose the corruption of communist Russia. Throughout the story, Orwell uses Squealer to illustrate how propaganda persuaded and victimized Russian citizens. Squealer is a sly, crafty pig who is not only intelligent, but a manipulative speaker as well. His cunning is key to the deception of the other animals. In chapter three, Squealer deceives the animals of the farm for the first time. The animals find out that the milk and apples are given solely to the pigs, and Squealer is sent to explain the uneven distribution of farm resources. Comrades he cried. You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? (Orwell 42) He goes on to explain, Milk and apples (this has been proved by science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers (42). Here, Squealer tries to convince the animals that its for health reasons that they take the apples and milk, but he tries to persuade them in other ways as well. Squealer continues, The wh ole management and organization of this farm depend on us. It is for your sake that we drink that milk and eat those apples(42). Finally, he convinces them with fear.Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones would come back! Yes, Jones would come back! (42) Here, Squealer frightens the animals into submission with the threat of the return of Mr. Jones, the abusive farmer that was driven out of the farm by the animals. Squealer is desperate to obtain the apples and milk and will stop at nothing to manipulate the other animals into believing that the pigs should be the sole recipients of this luxury. By masking their true intentions by misleading the animals, the pigs are soon able to acquire whatever they want with little resistance. Orwell uses Squealer to represent the Pravda, the Russian newspaper controlled by the government during Joseph Stalins regime. Orwell points out the corruption of the Soviet authority in his criticism of the propaganda used to su bdue opposition from the masses. Orwell also criticizes the monopoly of all Russian media by the government. Squealer was the messenger of the government. It was his responsibility to inform the animals of the arrangements of labor distribution and any other relevant legislation or news. Orwell establishes that a government-run publication as the only source of public information will inevitably be biased. Napoleon, Orwells representation of the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, stops his association with the animals in chapter eight. All orders were now issued through Squealer or one of the other pigs (89). Squealer is the only source of data the farm animals have. The animals have no way to dispute or question any of the statistics he delivered. There were times when it seemed to the animals that they worked longer hours and fed no better than they had in Joness day. On Sunday mornings Squealer, holding a long strip of paper with his trotter, would read out to them lists of figures proving that the production of every class of foodstuff had increased by two hundred per cent, three hundred pe r cent, or five hundred per cent as the case might be (89). Squealer is the liaison between the government and the public. Though the animals believe they are being fed the same amount as when Mr. Jones was in power, their government information source showed figures to the contrary that the populace couldnt dispute. Orwell was able to show that
Saturday, March 21, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"TV Made Me Do It!Ã¢â¬ Has our nation been deceived by the media? Has the media sent forth an era that it is all right to define what was considered Ã¢â¬Å"old fashion values?Ã¢â¬ Values are defined by the WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary as beliefs or ideas. What makes youth violence is it the media or simply a violent personality? Violence on TV affects how children view themselves, their world, and other people. In fact, experts warn that viewing violence can have lifelong harmful effects on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health. By the time children complete school, the average child will witness more than 100,000 acts of violence on TV, including 8,000 murders. The more violence children watch on TV, the more likely they may act in aggressive ways, become less sensitive to otherÃ¢â¬â¢s pain and suffering, and be more fearful of the world around them. Since we live in a violent society, weÃ¢â¬â¢re constantly hearing arguments that seeing TV violence, particularly children, desensitizes us, so we accept real violence more off handily maybe it even triggers real violence. The theory behind the TV attacks is always the same: if Bobby commits a crime, heÃ¢â¬â¢s not responsible and his parents are not responsible: So what is responsible? The problem in this society isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the easy availability of drugs, or guns, or television, although all are escape goateed. All of these things are mere senseless: they do only what we have them do. All supposedly scientific studies on the subject of TV violence Ã¢â¬Å"causingÃ¢â¬ real violence are based on a theory of cause-and-effect that is contrary to humans having the capability of making responsible, moral choices. So is the media causing the nation to stray away from the Ã¢â¬Å"old fashion values? We are voluntary beings by nature: we chose what we do and what we make ourselves. For example, you take two brothers from an identical lousy environment missing father, overworked mother, no money, rotten inner city neighborhood.... Free Essays on Lets Say TV Did It Free Essays on Lets Say TV Did It Ã¢â¬Å"TV Made Me Do It!Ã¢â¬ Has our nation been deceived by the media? Has the media sent forth an era that it is all right to define what was considered Ã¢â¬Å"old fashion values?Ã¢â¬ Values are defined by the WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s Dictionary as beliefs or ideas. What makes youth violence is it the media or simply a violent personality? Violence on TV affects how children view themselves, their world, and other people. In fact, experts warn that viewing violence can have lifelong harmful effects on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s health. By the time children complete school, the average child will witness more than 100,000 acts of violence on TV, including 8,000 murders. The more violence children watch on TV, the more likely they may act in aggressive ways, become less sensitive to otherÃ¢â¬â¢s pain and suffering, and be more fearful of the world around them. Since we live in a violent society, weÃ¢â¬â¢re constantly hearing arguments that seeing TV violence, particularly children, desensitizes us, so we accept real violence more off handily maybe it even triggers real violence. The theory behind the TV attacks is always the same: if Bobby commits a crime, heÃ¢â¬â¢s not responsible and his parents are not responsible: So what is responsible? The problem in this society isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the easy availability of drugs, or guns, or television, although all are escape goateed. All of these things are mere senseless: they do only what we have them do. All supposedly scientific studies on the subject of TV violence Ã¢â¬Å"causingÃ¢â¬ real violence are based on a theory of cause-and-effect that is contrary to humans having the capability of making responsible, moral choices. So is the media causing the nation to stray away from the Ã¢â¬Å"old fashion values? We are voluntary beings by nature: we chose what we do and what we make ourselves. For example, you take two brothers from an identical lousy environment missing father, overworked mother, no money, rotten inner city neighborhood....
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Literacy Strategies to Use in Lessons for Struggling Readers In many districts, students with reading difficulties are identified in the primary grades so that remediation and support can be given as early as possible. But there are struggling students who may need support in reading throughout their academic careers. There may be struggling readers who have entered a district in the later grades when the texts are more complex and the support services less available. Extended remediation for these groups of struggling readers can be less effective if the strategies that are chosen limit a students creativity or choice. Remediation with structured lessons that repeat the same material will result in less content covered by the students. So what strategies can the classroom teacher use to teach these struggling students who cannot read to access the content? When a text is critically important, teachers need to be purposeful in selecting literacy strategies for a content lesson that prepares struggling readers for success. They need to weigh what they know about the students with the most important ideas in the text or content. For example, a teacher may determine that students need to make inferences from a fiction text to understand a character or that students need to understand how a map illustrates how rivers are important to settlement. The teacher needs to consider what all students in the class could use in order to be successful and then balance that decision with the needs of the struggling reader. The first step could be to use an opening activity where all students can be engaged successfully. Successful starters An anticipation guide is a lesson opening strategy meant to activate the students prior knowledge. Struggling students, however, may lack prior knowledge, particularly in the area of vocabulary. The anticipation guide as a starter for struggling readers is also meant to build interest and excitement about a topic and give all students an opportunity for success. Another literacy strategy starter could be a text that all students, regardless of ability, can access. The text must be related to the topic or objective and can be a picture, an audio recording or a video clip. For example, if inferences are the objective of a lesson, students may fill in thought bubbles on photos of people in response to What is this person thinking? Allowing all students access to a common text that has been selected for equal use by all students for the lessons objective is not a remediation activity or a modification.Ã Prepare vocabulary In designing any lesson, a teacher must select the vocabulary that is necessary for all students to meet the goal for the lessons objective rather than attempt to try to fill in all the gaps in prior knowledge or ability. For example, if the objective of a lesson is to have all students understand that a rivers location is important developing a settlement, then all students will need to become familiar with content specific terms such as port, mouth, and bank. As each of these words has multiple meanings, a teacher canÃ develop pre-reading activities to familiarize all students before reading. Activities can be developed for vocabulary such as these three different definitions forÃ bank: The land alongside or sloping down to a river or lakeAn institution for receiving, lendingToÃ tipÃ orÃ inclineÃ anÃ airplane Another literacy strategy comes from the research that suggests that older struggling readers can be more successful if high-frequency words are combined in phrases rather than isolated words.Ã The struggling readersÃ can practice words from Frys high-frequency words if they are purposefully placed for meaning placed into the phrases, such as a hundred shipsÃ pulledÃ (from Frys 4th 100-wordÃ list). Such phrases can be read aloud for accuracy and fluency as part of a vocabulary activity that is based in a disciplines content. In addition, a literacy strategy for struggling readers comes from Suzy Pepper Rollins book Learning in the Fast Lane.Ã She introduces the idea of TIP charts, used to introduce a lessons vocabulary. Students may have access to these charts that are set up in three columns: Terms (T) Information (I) and Pictures (P). Students can use these TIP charts to increase their ability to engage in accountable talk in expressing their understanding or summarizing the reading. Such talk can help develop the speaking and listeningÃ skills of struggling readers.Ã Read aloud A text can be read aloud to students at any grade level. The sound of a human voice reading a text may be one of the best ways to help struggling readers develop an ear for language. Reading aloud is modeling, and students can make meaning from someones phrasing and intonation when reading a text. Modeling good reading helps all students while it provides access to the text being used. Reading aloud to students should also include think-aloud or interactive elements. Teachers should focus intentionally on the meaning Ã¢â¬Å"within the text,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"about the text,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"beyond the textÃ¢â¬ Ã as they read. This kind of interactive read aloud means stopping to ask questions to check for understanding and allowing students to discuss meaning with partners. After listening to a read aloud, struggling readers can contribute the same as their peers in a read-aloud.Ã Illustrate understanding When possible, all students should have the opportunity to draw their understanding. Teachers can ask all students to summarize the lessons Ã¢â¬Å"big ideaÃ¢â¬ or major concept can be summarized. Struggling students can share and explain their image with a partner, in a small group, or in a gallery walk.They may draw in different ways: To add to a pictureTo create an original pictureTo draw and label a pictureTo draw and to annotate a picture Literacy strategy matches objective Strategies used to support struggling readers should be tied to the lessons objective. If the lesson objective making inferences from a fiction text, then a repeated read aloudÃ of the text or selection of the text can help struggling readers to determine the best evidence to support their understanding. If the lesson objective is explaining the impact of rivers on developing aÃ settlement, then vocabulary strategies will provide struggling readers with the terms needed to explain their understanding.Ã Rather than try to address all of the needs of a struggling reader through modification of remediation, teachers can be purposeful in lesson design and selective in their choice of strategy, Ã using them individually or in a sequence: Ã starter activity, vocabulary prep, read-aloud, illustrate. Teachers can planÃ each content lesson to offer access to a common text for all students. When struggling readers are given the chance to participate, their engagement and their motivation will increase, perhaps even more than when traditional remediation is used.
Monday, February 17, 2020
The cold war in Europe - Essay Example At this time, Russia attempts to pursue its own plans of attacking Finland at the far north. The cold proves to be a big problem to him because his troops are under-prepared for the arctic winter that awaits them. In addition to this, RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership in this campain is poor, and even though they manage to win, they suffered losses, and their pride was humbled. In 1941, Germany launched one of the biggest military invasions ever undertaken, he calls it, Barbarossa. HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s plan is to take and also hold a line located eastward of Moscow. The Russians are caught unaware by this strategic move on the part of the third ReichÃ¢â¬â¢s cunning leader. Germany gained a lot through this campaign, and it even managed to gather prisoners of war, but later died. This move on the part of Germany angered the Russians, and they were resolved to destroy the third Reich. Some people have wondered, Ã¢â¬Ëat what year did the Germans reach the point of no return at the eastern front Ã¢â¬â¢? When we take a look back at history, we can observe the actions that took place at the eastern front 1942, between Germany and Russia. Ã¢â¬Å"Germany renewed its attacks on Russia, this time concentrating its attacks on Southern Russia, capturing the Crimea and Sevastopol after a siege. This was one of the few times their huge barrage gun, Big Bertha, was ever called into use.